2024 : 5 : 18
Saber Saedmocheshi

Saber Saedmocheshi

Academic rank: Assistant Professor
Education: PhD.
ScopusId: 683
Faculty: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences


Narrative review: The role of circadian rhythm on sports performance, hormonal regulation, immune system function, and injury prevention in athletes
Circadian rhythm, Exercise performance, hormonal homeostasis, Nutrition, Fatigue.
Journal Heliyon
Researchers hadi nobari ، Somayeh Azarian ، Saber Saedmocheshi ، Pablo Valdés-Badilla ، Tomás García Calvo


Objectives: This study was a narrative review of the importance of circadian rhythm (CR), describes the underlying mechanisms of CR in sports performance, emphasizes the reciprocal link between CR, endocrine homeostasis and sex differences, and the unique role of the circadian clock in immune system function and coordination. Method: As a narrative review study, a comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (core collection) databases using the keywords "circadian rhythm", "sports performance", "hormonal regulation", "immune system", and "injury prevention". Inclusion criteria were studies published in English and peer-reviewed journals until July 2023. Studies that examined the role of CR in sports performance, hormonal status, immune system function, and injury prevention in athletes were selected for review. Results: CR is followed by almost all physiological and biochemical activities in the human body. In humans, the superchiasmatic nucleus controls many daily biorhythms under solar time, including the sleep-wake cycle. A body of literature indicates that the peak performance of essential indicators of sports performance is primarily in the afternoon hours, and the evening of actions occurs roughly at the peak of core body temperature. Recent studies have demonstrated that the time of day that exercise is performed affects the achievement of good physical performance. This review also shows various biomarkers of cellular damage in weariness and the underlying mechanisms of diurnal fluctuations. According to the clock, CR can be synchronized with photonic and non-photonic stimuli (i.e., temperature, physical activity, and food intake), and feeding patterns and diet changes can affect CR and redox markers. It also emphasizes the reciprocal links between CR and endocrine homeostasis, the specific role of the circadian clock in coordinating immune system function, and the relationship between circadian clocks and sex differences. Conclusion: The interaction between insufficient sleep and time of day on performance has been established in this study because it is crucial to balance training, recovery, and sleep duration to attain optimal sports performance.